What are the two most important taxes for state and local governments?
State and local governments collect tax revenues from three primary sources: income, sales, and property taxes. Income and sales taxes make up the majority of combined state tax revenue, while property taxes are the largest source of tax revenue for local governments, including school districts.
The Role of State and Local Taxes in the U.S. Tax System
The U.S. tax system is a complex mixture of federal and state taxes, with state and local taxes making up a significant part of the overall burden. Understanding the role that state and local taxes play in the overall picture is essential for taxpayers to be informed on their financial obligations.
State and local taxes can be levied on any number of sources, including income, personal property, sales, and vehicle registration fees. Depending on the state or locality, taxes may also be assessed against inheritances and gifts, and on activities such as gambling or smoking.
Most state taxes are assessed and collected by the state governments and are integrated with the federal tax system. States often offer a variety of credits, deductions, and exemptions to taxpayers, which can reduce their liability.
The most significant source of state and local revenue is income taxes. Most states follow the federal tax rules to determine how state income tax is collected. For example, if a taxpayer pays federal income tax, they will also have to pay state income tax. Of course, there are exceptions and some states have different rules, so taxpayers should be sure to check the specifics for their state or locality.
Another important contribution from state and local taxes is from sales taxes. In the majority of states, a portion of the sales tax you pay on purchases goes directly to state and local coffers. Depending on the location, the sales tax rate can range from 0.7% to 10% or more.
In addition to sales and income taxes, taxpayers may also pay real estate taxes. All property owners are subject to this tax, usually calculated as a percentage of the assessed value of their home or business.
State and local taxes are a major part of the overall tax burden in the United States. Understanding the various taxes and how they relate to one another is essential, as it can greatly reduce the amount of taxes owed. At the same time, these taxes generate the revenue that helps the federal government provide essential support to individuals and states.